Educational Articles

Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats

By: Ernest Ward, DVM; Updated by Amy Panning, DVM

The kidneys have many functions. They principally act to remove waste products from the blood stream, regulate the levels of certain essential minerals such potassium and sodium, conserve water, and produce urine. The kidneys have a large amount of spare capacity to perform their various functions so at least two-thirds (67% to 70%) of the kidneys must be dysfunctional before any clinical signs are seen. Read more

Cushing's Disease in Dogs

By: Ernest Ward, DVM; updated by Rania Gollakner, BS DVM

Cushing's disease is a condition in which the adrenal glands overproduce certain hormones. The medical term for this disease is hyperadrenocorticism. There are three types of Cushing's disease, each of which has a different cause. Identifying the cause is important because the various types of the disease are treated differently and each has a different prognosis. Read more

Dexamethasone Suppression Test

By: Kristiina Ruotsalo, DVM, DVSc, Dip ACVP & Margo S. Tant BSc, DVM, DVSc

Two tests use dexamethasone (a synthetic cortisol) for diagnosing Cushing's disease or Cushing's syndrome. They are the "LOW DOSE" and the "HIGH DOSE" dexamethasone suppression test.

Read more


By: LifeLearn Inc.

Furosemide is a diuretic. It is used to help reduce the amount of water in the pet's body by increasing the flow of urine. Furosemide is also used to treat high blood pressure and decrease the workload on the heart and arteries. Read more

Giardia in Dogs

By: Ernest Ward, DVM. Updated by Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP; Amy Panning, DVM

Giardiasis is an intestinal infection in humans and animals, caused by a microscopic protozoan parasite. The parasite occurs worldwide and is a common cause of "Traveler's Diarrhea" in people. Outdoor enthusiasts who inadvertently consume contaminated water may develop "beaver fever", which is another name for Giardiasis in people. Read more

Hepatic Lipidosis in Cats (Fatty Liver Syndrome)

By: Catherine Barnette, DVM; Ernest Ward, DVM

Hepatic lipidosis, also known as fatty liver syndrome, is unique to cats and is one of the most common liver diseases seen in cats. Usually a cat with hepatic lipidosis has recently gone through a period of anorexia. When fat is broken down rapidly to supply energy and nutrients to the anorectic cat, it can overwhelm the ability of the liver to process and the fat becomes stored in and around the liver cells, further compromising liver function. Diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis is made from blood tests that demonstrate poor liver function and from a liver biopsy or aspirate. This disease is treatable with aggressive nutritional support until a normal appetite returns. Read more

Nutritional Requirements of Large and Giant Breed Puppies

By: Lynn Buzhardt, DVM

Not all puppy foods are alike. Not all pups are alike. Feeding the right diet to the right puppy is very important, especially when it comes to large or giant breed pups. Read more

Obesity in Dogs

By: Krista Williams, BSc, DVM; Robin Downing, DVM, CVPP, CCRP, DAAPM

Obesity is the most common preventable disease in dogs affecting up to 45% of the North American dog population. Obesity contributes to disease including diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, and cancer eventually causing a decreased lifespan. Obesity can be controlled with diet and exercise plans. Regular visits to the veterinarian for body condition assessment and weight checks are crucial to weight loss as is maintaining the recommended dietary intake. Read more

Oclacitinib (Brand Name: Apoquel®) in Dogs

By: Catherine Barnette, DVM

Oclacitinib is an oral medication used to manage itching associated with allergic dermatitis (including atopy) in dogs at least 12 months of age. Oclacitinib works by inhibiting enzymes involved in itch, inflammation, and allergic reactions. Read more


By: Rania Gollakner, BS, DVM

Trilostane is a treatment for hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Disease) and Alopecia X. It is given by mouth as a capsule, given with food. Common side effects include lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. It is contraindicated in liver or kidney disease and pregnant animals. If an Addisonian crisis or any other negative reactions occur, call your veterinary office immediately.

Read more